imagine an elephant into a black hole?This may sound like a fable.However the American physicist at the university of California at Stamford, the Germany in decades to "rescue" it.His research result unexpectedly, the elephant was on either side of a black hole, it causes "earthquake" in physics, even shaken the Einstein's "theory of relativity".
lost the bet hawking
in the 1970 s, at the university of Oxford, the famous scientist Stephen Hawking proposed theoretically a black hole is not true black, and slowly evaporates, and disappeared over billions of years.People call it "hawking radiation, this kind of phenomenon often happens at the edge of the black hole.But hawking ask if a black hole, eventually disappear, all inside?He speculated that all material will be over radiation leaks back into space, speed faster than light, to escape from a black hole "claws".
30 years hawking believes that the information in the black hole must be destroyed in the evaporation.He thinks that radiation is random, do not include the initial information into a black hole.So in 1997 he and California polytechnic university physicist kip thorne and confronting John & gere bet, bet is a "baseball encyclopaedia britannica.This silence for many years, until June 2004, hawking unexpectedly in Dublin, Ireland's meeting that oneself has been delayed, not destroy information black holes.Because it is difficult to buy the baseball encyclopaedia britannica, so had to send & gere professor hawking a cricket in the encyclopaedia britannica as compensation, become a popular saying in the scientific community.
the principle of
what makes hawking change your mind?Is the university's institute for advanced study in Princeton, New Jersey, more than a horse named Juan, young scientists.Although he was unknown, but in the past decade some scientists think that he made outstanding contribution to theoretical physics.He used the superstring theory, also known as the principle of everything (TOE), a good coordination of the theory of relativity and quantum theory.At the 1998 meeting in string theory, people use "card liana" melody, with a song called "horses," salute to him.
he developed in 1997, Germany and the Netherlands at the university of Utrecht Gerard khufu, superstring theory is put forward.A black hole like other things, he thought, there is a boundary, the evaporation and the boundary of interaction between quantum.Ordinary quantum information loss will not occur in the universe, so also does not exist in the black hole information of the mysterious disappearance.He said: "boundary theory takes into account the rules of quantum mechanics.It makes all of the information is very clear."
although the result is surprising, but most physicists recognized this idea so far.Sass, said: "the opposition, including hawking, had to give up, because the theory is so accurate.All the theoretical physicist starting from the purpose of the most practical thought the holographic principle and information conservation is real."
an elephant into a black hole
if information is not lost in the hole, so it is there?Madoff, said: "hawking radiation is not random, which contains the subtle information into the black hole matter."
sass, think the study is a big improvement can be described with an elephant into a black hole thought experiment.
imagine little girl Alice at a safe distance from the black hole, suddenly an elephant stupidly walked toward the black hole boundary.She found that the elephant is near the event horizon, the more slow, this is the general theory of relativity.The elephant under the baking of "hawking radiation into a pile of ashes.In Alice's view, information on the elephant in the ashes.
the story twists and turns.When an elephant into a black hole, Alice didn't realize that her friend Bob is on the back of an elephant.Also thanks to relativity, Bob when he across the event horizon didn't even notice.Boundary is not like a brick wall in the universe, but only one point.He then free fall, and elsewhere in the universe have a black hole.The gravity at Bob conquest, along with him the elephant to tear apart.But at this moment, Bob saw the saved information.
two stories are not beautiful, but which one is correct?According to Alice, elephants never through the border, before have been swallowed by "hawking radiation;According to Bob, the elephant crossed the border, and always floating happily, until become "Italian spaghetti.These two stories contradict each other, then where is the elephant?
the answer you may have guessed, Texas, thinks the elephant on opposite sides of the black hole.He said: "always use quantum mechanics' or 'instead of' and '.Light is a wave or particles, according to do the test.The situation of the black hole, enter the material we sometimes use to describe, sometimes by outgoing hawking radiation.So an elephant in two places at the same time: elephants live in the black hole, and dead elephants outside the black hole."
sass, he added, if a black hole is large enough, the same two elephants location may billions of light years apart.
according to Einstein's "theory of relativity", under certain conditions will scale, time can speed, but the object space and time position is accurately defined.Sass, however, think of all the latest evidence suggests that an object location in space and time are no longer sure.He says this is "new theory of relativity", not only applicable to the black hole, and can also be used in other places.As long as there are boundaries, as long as it is anything to speed up -- earth, solar system and the Milky Way, this will work.
this view will undoubtedly cause "earthquake" in physics, even shaken the Einstein's "theory of relativity".Theorist at the university of California Steve giddings says: "we are promoting a paradoxical black hole, we can imagine about black holes each result and some important aspects of modern physics.Could detect the black hole information will lead to a revolution, as far-reaching significance and the advent of quantum mechanics.By deciphering the black hole information, human beings may find what is the other side of the universe."
black hole computers
Seth Lloyd thinks of the Massachusetts institute of technology, this theory can help people obtain information from the black hole.When the whereabouts of the "particles" hawking with material inside a black hole, it will send the material information to inside a black hole "companion".If the plan works, black holes will be convincing to use as a quantum computer.