with the popularity of physical examination and ultrasonic technology advances, the diagnosis of thyroid nodule sprang up, and like a lingering clouds, flying off the shelves.
thyroid nodules are common .Many epidemiological studies have shown that the prevalence of thyroid nodule is about 50%, that is, the have thyroid nodule almost half of the people! people with thyroid nodules can breathe a sigh of relief.Half of the human, the advocacy with you, you have what good afraid of?
however, afraid of everything but
about 10% of the nodules is malignant, or about 5% of human suffering from thyroid cancer.People with thyroid nodule nervous again, and I wouldn't be that 10%?
but here again there is a but
more than 90% of thyroid carcinoma were papillary carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma is a kind of excellent prognosis.We in the industry there are two sentences in the air.
the first sentence, if in this life must have a kind of cancer, so I can choose thyroid papillary carcinoma.
the second sentence, cases of thyroid papillary carcinoma death is rare.
that is to say, less than 10% of thyroid cancer prognosis is not very good. for patients with thyroid nodules, which is less than 1% with the possibility of not good thyroid cancer prognosis, the possibility of more than 99% can continue to popular drink hot, abetted .How, ups and downs in life too stimulating?
although the overall prognosis of thyroid nodule is very good, we should also actively to evaluate its, identifying the benign and malignancy, pick out the need to deal with papillary carcinoma, and even less good other types of thyroid cancer prognosis.At this time our protagonist of: ultrasonic. ultrasound is the first choice for the identification of benign and malignant thyroid nodule.
as evaluation of a person can't light on one aspect, judgement of benign and malignant thyroid nodule various aspects also needs to be integrated, including morphology, aspect ratio, boundary, echo, calcification, blood flow is the key of benign and malignant judgment, number, location, size, the choice of treatment is the key.
typical echoes the ultrasonic characteristics of malignant nodules include low or very low, aspect ratio & gt;1, form irregular boundary is not clear, punctate calcification and limitations of rich blood flow. rare malignant nodules have all of the above characteristics, with one or more of the above characteristics should be considered the possibility of malignant.
let's specifically mention the sonographic features:
1 "low" and "high"
echo is characteristic of the ultrasonic report description.Ultrasonic description must be in the description of thyroid nodule echo, from "no echo - high echo - such as echo - low echo - very low echo", in turn, increased risk, for low and very low echo tubercle especially need to guard against risk of malignant.
features 2 "vertical" and "horizontal"
medical terminology as the aspect ratio, if the aspect ratio> 1, the nodule with long;If the aspect ratio <1, nodules as long sideways.Aspect ratio & gt;1, thyroid nodules grow into "tall, thin type", malignant risk increased significantly, shown in the left below.If the aspect ratio <1, "squat" type, thyroid nodule in the malignant significantly reduce risk, as follows.
aspect ratio & gt;1
"tall, thin type"
increased risk of malignant
aspect ratio & lt;1
lower risk of malignant
features 3 irregular
in a nutshell, is developed into "crooked melon crack jujube", the edge is not smooth, like a crab legs spread outward, some even to the thyroid gland outside his territory, such nodules risk is extremely high, must go to hospital as soon as possible.
features four calcification
calcification, especially the tiny calcification, is the most common type of thyroid cancer - one of papillary carcinoma lesions, but there are also some other types of thyroid nodule calcification, such as continuous annular calcification with malignant risk.In short, when ultrasound found calcification in thyroid nodule, or to hospital, evaluate it again.
5 "solid" and "empty"
if your thyroid nodule special empty, like a bubble, or like a sponge, composed of multiple structure of utricle gathered, medical terminology as cystic thyroid nodules or thyroid cysts, and that you can safely follow-up it, such basic non-cancerous nodules.And if your thyroid nodule is solid components, ultrasonic report described as thyroid cystic or solid nodules or solid thyroid nodules, so need to solid part for the rest of the four evaluation again, it's to the hospital to professional ultrasound doctors.
an increased risk of
to summarize, if ultrasound report describes thyroid nodule is " low shaft without calcium " or " low trees shouldn't be real "any of these five characteristics, suggest you go to hospital as soon as possible;If the above did not appear until five o 'clock, that you can relax, but also hope that you took time to a hospital review.
see thyroid nodules are more and more, readers have a lot of thyroid nodule.
today, summarizes the questions about nodules nine of the most common, and presents a doctor's professional answer, hope to be able to remove all doubts.1
why chairman thyroid nodule?
thyroid nodule clear etiology is unclear, but may be associated with the following factors:
childhood head and neck treated with radiation
their immune function disorder
iodine deficiency or excess iodine intake
among them, the article 1, 3, 4 is a risk factor for thyroid cancer.
2 thyroid nodules have any harm to the body?
thyroid nodules have harm to the body, depends on the benign and malignant nodules, size and function.
benign and malignancy:
benign nodules basic harmless to the body, just once every 6 ~ 12 months review.
malignant nodules that thyroid cancer, need timely treatment, otherwise may lead to death.Of course, most of the thyroid cancer after timely and reasonable treatment, the patient can survive for a long time.
if the nodule is too large, or grow quickly, may be oppression to the surrounding tissues, organs, cause hoarseness, difficulty in breathing, swallowing difficulties, etc.
some nodules can be independent secretion of thyroid hormone, can lead to hyperthyroidism, show is afraid of hot, sweaty, flustered, hand shaking, insomnia, angular, diarrhea, menstrual disorders, etc.
some of the nodules may be accompanied by JiaJian, is afraid of the cold, dry skin, edema, weight gain, sleepiness, no spirit, bloating, constipation, menstrual disorders, etc.
3 high malignant thyroid nodule possibility?
5% ~ 15% of malignant thyroid nodules.Some just discovery can be judged to be malignant nodules, when some nodes first found expression is benign, but may be late to turn into a vicious.
so after found nodules, is very important to regularly review .
4 thyroid nodule calcification is equivalent to cancer?
have thyroid nodule calcification mainly by ultrasound, CT and check to see.
first of all, not all of calcification are prompt carcinoma, benign nodules can also have calcification;Second, some thyroid cancer will not appear calcification, so there is no calcification could not rule out the possibility of cancer.
in the ultrasound tip small gravel-like calcification in thyroid nodule, is a sign of thyroid cancer .About 55% ~ 68% of thyroid cancer have such calcification.
if ultrasound tip ring or large lump calcification, so most of them are benign, and only 10% ~ 20% are malignant.
5 is there any way to reduce a thyroid nodule?
if the nodule is vicious, early surgery may be necessary.
if the nodules are benign, can try the following method to reduce the nodules:
drugs: that oral thyroxine preparation treatment.But the efficacy is not ideal, only a few people after taking medicine tubers narrow, most people have little effect.
surgery: surgery risk into consideration, unless the nodules are large or have a bleeding again and again, otherwise benign nodules is generally not choose surgery.
ablation: including thermal ablation and ethanol injection, iodine 131 treatment.But the advent of ablation time is relatively short, its safety, suitable crowd, adverse reactions, the problem such as the risk of recurrence is not clear.So the current mainstream medicine is not recommended ablation, the treatment also need more time and research to verify.
through the above analysis we can see that there is no good way to narrow nodules.So for benign thyroid nodules, the doctor advised patients only commonly review on a regular basis (once every 6 ~ 12 months review).
warning: if benign nodules appear obvious increase in the process of review and other malignant, early surgery may be necessary.6
which thyroid nodule need surgery?
one of the following conditions need to consider surgery:
biopsy proved malignant nodules;
is growing fast, highly suspected to be malignant nodules;
volume is very big, there is oppression symptoms nodules;
merge hyperthyroidism nodules;
nodes repeated bleeding.
7 thyroid nodule relapse after the operation?
if you have any residues, surgical removal of the incomplete, postoperative recurrence of may.If recurrence after surgery again, 5 ~ 10 times higher risk than the first surgery.
this request doctors as far as possible in surgery to remove completely, operation difficulty is big.
8 non-iodized salt have thyroid nodules should eat?
1. If it is merge hyperthyroidism, thyroid nodule or thyroid carcinoma postoperative iodine 131 treatment before
you need to eat no iodized salt, and I can't eat kelp, seaweed, shrimp, shellfish and other food containing high iodine.
2. If merged thyroid nodule hashimoto thyroiditis
no need to eat, no iodized salt, eat iodized salt can commonly, but less to eat kelp, laver, shrimp, shellfish and other food containing high iodine.
3. If it is pure benign nodules
diet is no special request, it doesn't matter as long as it's not every day to eat a lot of seafood.After all, no thyroid problems, will eat out every day to eat a lot of seafood.
9 have thyroid nodules can normal sport?
1. If merge hyperthyroidism thyroid nodule or JiaJian
it is best in thyroid function completely back to normal again after exercise.
2. If a shaped gland carcinoma postoperative eating levothyroxine
so only low intensity exercise, such as walking, tai chi, low intensity square dance, etc.
movement should pay attention to in the process, if there is flustered, chest tightness, chest pain, dizziness, blacked out, etc., to stop the movement, rest, in time to see the doctor at once.
3. If it is pure benign nodules
can like normal movement.