recently some articles related to eating salt are popular in wechat circles, such as"too little salt increases the risk of death?""less salt is more likely to have a heart attack!"and so on.a lot of people look at it and ask a question:don't you need salt?that's great!i can finally enjoy a heavy meal!
these articles is not actually the new content, are famous an article in the lancet medical journal published article, entitled"associations of urinary sodium excretion with cardiovascular events in individuals with and without hypertension:a pooled analysis of data from four studies"(the mente a et al, 2016).
the study of the past four large multinational research data together are analyzed, including 49 countries of respondents(102000 of them come from pure research, 102000 from epidream research, 25000 from the ontarget study), a combined total of more than 130000 people, both for the elderly between 45 to 63 years.during 3~ 5 years of follow-up, the researchers on the respondents to the measurement of 24 hours urinary sodium excretion and urinary sodium excretion and the participants' blood pressure and cardiovascular disease and death conditions for correlation analysis.
, the researchers found that the systolic pressure increased with the increase in sodium output.people with high blood pressure increased more.they found that for people with high blood pressure, the risk of death was higher than that of people who had three grams of sodium(7.6 grams of salt) when the sodium was seven grams(17.8 grams of salt).
however, for patients with high blood pressure, the lowest risk of dying range is from 4 to 5 grams of sodium(salt 10.2~ 12.7 g), with no high blood pressure, risk of death in the discharge under 4 grams of sodium(10.2 g) will be increased significantly, 4~ 7 grams of sodium salt(10.2~ 17.8 g) between the lowest risk, and eat more salt effect is not big.the researchers say that too little sodium can increase the risk of death, so the amount of salt is too small...
this article is an article in the middle and old age people are fried.my blood pressure is high, the doctor always let me eat less salt, originally i don't need to control salt at all?the new scientific discovery is here, i don't need to control salt in the future, really good news!for those who had no intention of controlling salt, there was a reason.
however, wait a minute.as soon as this article comes out, a large number of domestic and foreign experts retort.
<em>(the friends who don't have the patience to look at the research arguments, please go straight to the bottom of the article.)/em>
rebuttal#1:this article directly equates the amount of sodium to the amount of sodium, which is not necessarily consistent.the risk of death is low, not equal to the risk of death.
, first of all, people eat different foods daily, and sodium urine tests require repeated sampling.in this study, sodium excretion was just two samples of morning urine samples, not necessarily representative of the daily diet.
, second, sodium excretion is not only related to the salt intake but also affected by many other dietary factors.
> third, from the perspective of methodology, it is not a complete linear relationship between the content of urine sodium and the amount of sodium in food, which may be underestimated or overestimated if the intake is too high or too low.
#4, in addition to urine, the salt in the body can be excreted by sweat.i noticed that 100, 000 of the 130,000 people in this study were from pure research, which was conducted among manual workers in underdeveloped areas.physical labor, sweating more, and low-income residents expect no facilities such as air conditioning, sweat quantity will be big, part of food salt from the sweat ran out, and then the same salt intake, compared to people who do not sweat, urine sodium volume will drop, cause estimation error.
rebuttal#2:apart from salt, other dietary factors also affect all-cause mortality.
, for example, there is also a lot of sodium in animal foods.given that most of the study of the samples from pure research, and the study of the manual workers in underdeveloped areas are conducted, more intake of animal food, usually means better nutritional status.
:a sample of 49 countries, it sounds as if it can draw a general conclusion, but it may hide the huge differences in dietary content.what kind of food does sodium come from?some food even without too much salt is bad for health, also some other components is helpful to health food, in addition to salt, cannot only the number of a salt to explain differences in mortality rates.
, for example, salt mix rice eat very unhealthy, of course, even if the amount of salt is not much also not conducive to longevity.but if you add more fish and vegetables, even if the amount of salt is increased, you can still improve your nutritional status, which is better than a small amount of salt-mixed rice.the results did not rule out other dietary factors.
rebuttal reason 3:the causal relationship in this study is doubtful.
:people with high blood pressure often get advised to eat less salt, but that does not eliminate the health effects of long-term hypertension.people who suffer from high blood pressure for a long time eat less salt, but the death rate is high, and it does not mean that eating less salt increases mortality.
rebuttal reason 4:people are different and cannot use the same conclusion.
rebuttal reason 5:the author of this paper cannot give a reliable scientific explanation of the harmful effects of salt.
although the author mentioned less salt may affect health related research, but these studies are extremely less salt, salt intake are below 3 grams per day, or even a gram, cannot explain the thesis related to salt intake to 7 grams per day will still be the result of the increased mortality.in fact, no dietary studies have shown that eating so much salt per day can also cause health damage.the american heart association, which has publicly questioned the results of the study, said the study was"flawed"and said it would not change its salt advice for people with high blood pressure.
chinese researchers also said the study could not overturn the results of a number of previous studies.in our country studies confirm that reduce excess salt, indeed can lower the risk of high blood pressure and stroke, the number of more than 10 grams of salt is not suitable for recommended for patients with high blood pressure and less physical activity.the health report has published"an authoritative magazine article that can't be kneeled down:a 6g/day diet of salt."(author:su xiaobing, huaxi medical college).
in addition to consider that too much salt, in addition to bad for blood pressure control, also can cause many harmful results.for example, a high-salt diet increases the amount of calcium excreted in urine, thereby increasing the risk of kidney stones and osteoporosis.a high-salt diet that increases appetite is not conducive to preventing obesity;high salt food stimulates the mucosa, which is not conducive to controlling the inflammation of the digestive tract mucosa and increasing the risk of gastric cancer.
there are recent science news, high salt diet will increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and autoimmune diabetes, especially those who have the high genetic risk for diabetes, of the dangers of high salt diet is bigger, the risk can be increased by 300%(https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/319434.php).
nature of recent study found that high salt diet can significantly disrupt the intestinal flora, make the beneficial lactobacillus class reduced or even disappear, change their own immune function, thus promotes hypertension(wilck n, 2017).
is difficult to say, so many reasons, is not enough to allow you to moderate high-salt and high-salt snacks?
, of course, there are many other factors that affect the risk of disease besides salt intake.
in the first place, due to genetic differences and physical factors, salt tolerance is different from everyone.
is different from human gene.some people are more sensitive to high salt intake, while others are less sensitive and have more blood pressure.people and people have different constitution.some people have good kidneys and no changes in their body.people with weak renal function and poor blood circulation may have mild edema and decreased skin elasticity after eating salt.people with compromised kidneys even need to strictly control sodium.so, there's no need to compare yourself to someone who eats salt.
second, potassium, calcium, magnesium, dietary antioxidants, the composition such as dietary nitrate intake is different, so even the same salt intake and risk of hypertension, coronary heart disease risk, the risk of stroke and the risk for all-cause mortality is different also.
, but that's not to say that the less salt you eat, the better.after all, salt is a necessary element of the human body, and it is necessary to maintain normal blood pressure, normal muscle tension and nervous system stability.sodium intake too low and too high is harmful to health.there were even studies that found that for overweight people, a low-salt diet that ate just 0.6 grams of salt a day would have been more severe than the 11.6 grams of salt(garg r, 2014)."too much of a good thing", and vice versa.
all in all, this article in the lancet published literature"eat more than 10 grams of salt every day is the most beneficial to prevent illness and death", on the research method is not reliable, don't get the support of the community.the latest findings are the most reliable evidence.countries to develop related recommendations, nutrition and health standard, be widely research results, make a comprehensive analysis, to evaluate the reliability of the evidence, rather than simply adopt"latest story", or the most eye-catching literature.
:the ai value of sodium is 1400 mg, equivalent to 3.6 grams of salt.the pi value for the prevention of chronic disease is 2000 mg of sodium equivalent to 5.1 grams of salt.
is good enough for healthy people to eat 5 to 6 grams of salt per day, even if they are to prevent chronic diseases.if the environment is warmer and the sweat is more, the amount of sodium is increased, so the intake should be increased.lower salt intake is required unless you follow the doctor's advice.
because our country residents' average salt intake of more than 9 grams, the distance there is quite a gap, low"harmful"but many heavy taste people's daily salt intake more than 12 grams, and most of patients with high blood pressure are salt sensitive crowd, so to promote accused of salt in our country at present is given priority to, is accord with the actual situation.an article entitled"salt reduction in china:a state-of-art review."this article details the scientific basis of china's action on salt control(shao s, 2017), which can be referenced by interested doctors and nutritionist friends.
> finally, if you can test it, do you have the risk of salt deficiency without the salt doctor's advice?
-eat only raw fruits and vegetables for weight loss, not salty dishes.
-two meals a day with no salty meal to lose weight, and the rest of the dishes are very small.
-two meals a day using"broken wall machine"and other foods, using fruits and vegetables and seeds for meal, no salty condiments, and very few other salty foods.
-three meals a day are basically white boiled vegetables, no salt and very little meat, no salty staple food and salty snacks.
-working in high temperature, with a lot of sweat every day, but no additional measures to replenish brine.
-a lot of physical activity, or frequent long runs such as marathons, but the daily diet is rarely salt, and no electrolytes are added after exercise and exercise.
if you don't belong to the above situation, don't worry about eating too little salt.reduce the number of potato chips in the daily diet, reduce the biscuit instant noodles, reduce processed meat products, reduce salted meat and salted fish, and reduce salty dishes, which is beneficial to health!